The 32-year-old midfielder, who is presently in Egypt with the Nigeria national team at the 2019 Africa Cup of Nations, has signed a contract for two years with an option for an additional year.
Mikel became free after his loan spell at English Championship club Middlesbrough ended last season.
He made 19 appearances for Middlesbrough and scored one goal.
“A 2 + 1-year agreement was signed with the free captain of the Nigerian National Team, Professional Footballer John Mikel Obi, with one-year option to transfer to our club,” a statement on Trabzonspor’s official website read
Mikel is now the third Nigerian at Trabzonspor with Ogenyi Onazi and Anthony Nwaekeme already key members of the Super Lig side.
Trabzonspor will play in the UEFA Europa League in the coming season following their fourth-place finish in the Turkish Super Lig table last season.
The move to Turkey will see Mikel play in his fourth country having started out in Norway before he moved to England where he spent the better part of his career with London club, Chelsea.
Mikel also had an uneventful spell in the Chinese Super League where he played for Tianjin Teda.